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What is Fire ?

Fire occurs whenever combustible fuel in the presence of oxygen at an extremely high temperature becomes gas. Flames are the visual indicator of the heated gas. Fire can also occur from lower-temperature sources. Over time, combustible materials such as smoldering embers can reach their ignition temperature.

The negative effects of fire include hazard life and property atmospheric pollution and water contamination. Fire has been used by humans in rituals , in agriculture for clearing land for cooking generating heat and light for signalling population purposes, smelting, forging, incinerating of waste, cremation and as a weapon or mode of destruction.

The fire triangle is a simple way of understanding the elements of fire. The sides of the triangle represent the interdependent ingredients needed for fire: heat, fuel and oxygen.


A heat source is responsible for the initial ignition of fire, and is also needed to maintain the fire and enable it to spread. Heat allows fire to spread by drying out and preheating nearby fuel and warming surrounding air. The heat can come from lots of different things -- a match, focused light, friction, lightning, something else that is already burning.


Fuel is any kind of combustible material. It’s characterized by its moisture content, size, shape, quantity and the arrangement in which it is spread over the landscape. The moisture content determines how easily it will burn.


Air contains about 21 percent oxygen, and most fires require at least 16 percent oxygen content to burn. Oxygen supports the chemical processes that occur during fire. When fuel burns, it reacts with oxygen from the surrounding air, releasing heat and generating combustion products (gases, smoke, embers, etc.). This process is known as oxidation.

Removal of any above elements results in the fire going out.

Class of Fire

Solid Fire

Wood, Paper, Plastic, Cloth, Coal, Leather, Wax, Grain etc

Liquid Fire

Gasoline, Petrol, Diesel, Kerosene, Paint, Alcohol, Varnish, Grease, Solvents etc

Gaseous Fire

Natural Gas, LPG, CNG, Propane, Hydrogen, Butane etc

Metal Fire

Magnesium, Potassium, Titanium, Zirconium, Sodium, Lithium etc
(This all are Combustible metel)

ESF (Electrically Started Fire)

Electrical Equipment like Computer, Electrical Panel, Generators, Motor etc

Kitchen Fire

Cooking Oils & Fats, Vegetable Oils etc